Buller points out that you have to know what your learning goals are for the students before you can assess them. And as part of this discussion he identifies different ways people have described 'knowing.'
|Column 1Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning and Knowing Processes (1956)
||Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences (1983)
|Anderson and Krathwohl’s Respose to Bloom (2001)
6 Cognitive processes
The links will give you more information on each model.
|Fink’s Taxonomy of Significant Learning
It's useful to recognize that there are different ways of 'knowing' and different kinds of intelligence. Mostly college grades focus on logical-mathematical intelligence, but as Gardner points out, there are other kinds of intelligence that are important.
The chapter doesn't really tell us how to apply these models to construct class goals and to assess student work except in the most general way. It does highlight an important thought on teaching:
Truly effective instruction is not measured by how much college professors teach, but by how much college students learn.
That ought to be posted above every college professor's desk.