Saturday, April 29, 2017

Why Don't Ducks' Feet Freeze? And Other Spring Thoughts

The bike trails are now pretty much snow and ice free.  There's sun.  No time to blog, time to be out.

Goose Lake still has ice.

This grebe is riding the waves at a windy Potter Marsh Friday afternoon.

A gull on the final approach to its nest.

Potter Marsh from the boardwalk.

Waiting for the new green to push up through to the sun.

This morning I had ride by Goose Lake again and there were two mallards sleeping on the ice.  If you're wondering, like I was, why their feet don't freeze, Ask a Naturalist explains why:

"It’s all about heat exchange, and the smaller the temperature difference between two objects, the more slowly heat will be exchanged. Ducks, as well as many other birds, have a counter-current heat exchange system between the arteries and veins in their legs. Warm arterial blood flowing to the feet passes close to cold venous blood returning from the feet. The arterial blood warms up the venous blood, dropping in temperature as it does so. This means that the blood that flows through the feet is relatively cool. This keeps the feet supplied with just enough blood to provide tissues with food and oxygen, and just warm enough to avoid frostbite. But by limiting the temperature difference between the feet and the ice, heat loss is greatly reduced. Scientists who measured it calculated that Mallards lost only about 5% of their body heat through their feet at 0o C (32o F)."

Friday, April 28, 2017

What's In A Name? Instead Of Taxes, How About An Alaska Membership Fee?

As our legislature struggles to come up with a way to balance the Alaska state budget, we see the cut expenses camp duke it out with the raise income camp.  Taxes, particularly income taxes, are anathema to key Republicans, like Senate President Pete Kelly.  It seems just the word 'tax' is the biggest obstacle.  So I'd like to repost a piece from last year:  

 Instead Of Taxes, How About An Alaska Membership Fee?

Back in 2008, at his corruption trial, Vic Kohring said that he had signed a 'no taxes' pledge.  He could not vote for any tax.  However, if the tax were called a fee, he might be able to vote for it.

Eight years later we still have legislators who are allergic to the word 'tax' and break out in hives and start hyperventilating when anyone utters the word.  Some key legislators in Juneau are willing to inflict enormous damage to the state of Alaska rather than even consider something like an income tax.

I have a proposal.

The Alaska Membership Fee

Everyone who lives or works  in Alaska is eligible to buy a membership.  Memberships would be sold on a sliding scale based on factors such as net worth, income, location, age, amount of time in Alaska each year, etc.

The biggest attraction of the membership would be:

  • eligibility to apply for an Alaska Permanent Fund Check  - it wouldn't guarantee eligibility for the check, but without  an Alaska Membership Card (AMC) one couldn't apply.  

There could be a number of other perks one gets with an AMC such as:

  • free public K-12  education
  • discounts (or even free pass for higher levels) at state parks, state ferry, state run airports
  • access to Pioneer Homes
  • discounts and scholarships at University of Alaska campuses
  • discounts for driver's license, fishing licenses, hunting licenses, etc.
  • use of the Anchorage LIO when legislators aren't there
People who live in rural areas will have different needs from people who live in urban areas.  Age may also lead to different kinds and levels of service.  These can  all be figured out.  Or, the legislature might decide that simplicity may be preferable to complicated pricing and eligibility requirements and choose to use one or two factors, such as income or net worth.  

Alaska Membership would help people realize the different benefits they get from the state that they normally enjoy without even thinking about it.  After all, good government is invisible.  Most people only notice government when it stops working well:
  • when diseases break out 
  • when potholes aren't repaired
  • when traffic lights don't work
  • when police abuse citizens
  • when foster kids are abused
  • when their own kids don't learn at school 
  • when garbage piles up and air is polluted 
  • when the water is no longer safe to drink
  • when state parks are all closed and local park equipment is broken
  • when voting machines are hacked
  • when gasoline pumps show more gallons than you actually got
When such government services break down, we end up paying more to deal with the consequences:
  • higher insurance and repair bills because of poorly engineered and maintained roads, contaminated water and air, and crime
  • lost work days and other health costs because of lack of sanitation or access to basic health care
  • shortsighted legislators because of poor schooling
  • lost work time because of long waits in line at state offices because there aren't enough employees
  • higher need for police, courts, and social services because foster kids aren't well supported
  • weaker economy because business can't get good employees when government services make Alaska an undesirable place to live
You get the point.  Some of our influential legislators don't.  Their mantra is 'government is bad,'  and  'taxes are worse." 

But we wouldn't have to have an income tax or a sales tax.  Instead we'd all become members of the State of Alaska and our membership fees would go towards all those services that our legislators say are wasteful luxuries, like health care for the working poor, like school teachers for our kids.  

Mostly, the creation of Alaska Membership would remove the key obstacle for those legislators who,  like Kohring,  can't accept the word tax, but could get behind a fee.  And it would be voluntary.  No one would have to join, but they couldn't apply for the Alaska Permanent Fund  check if they didn't.  And they could get basic state services for free (non-members would have to buy guest passes, say for campgrounds or public school) and they could buy Alaska T-shirts and hats at a discount.  

I'd note that plenty of organizations, public and private, already use sliding scale fees for their services.  Here are just a couple of examples: 

Health Care
Independent Adoption Center
Golf Clubs and Health Clubs
Private Schools

This could set a trend for the rest of the country.  A membership card would prove you were a 'real' Alaskan.  So much cooler than paying an income tax.  

If you agree, then send this post to your legislator.  You can find their contact information here.

Wednesday, April 26, 2017

Bread Print, No blue, Remaining Ice [UPDATED]

My bread recipe calls for parchment paper under the loaf.  Here's the bread print on the parchment.

And the bread itself.  (I know, they don't look like they match.  I think if I had turned the bread around it would fit better.)

I've been doing chores inside and outside.  There's one tulip bud and lots of other things are poking up out of the ground.  The irises, some lilies, and other things were exposed as I started raking the mulch off the flower beds and moving it up the compost pile.

Also had some printer problems.  It stopped printing blue.  I checked at Office Depot where we bought it about five years ago and they sent me to Lewis and Lewis on Fireweed where I could buy a new printhead for $65 with no guarantee that it would fix the problem.  And even if it did, the machine was old

by their standards and something else could go wrong.  And new ones that did all the stuff my old one can do - wifi, copy, scan, fax, color, etc. - are now available for a little more than the $65 printhead.

It's the magenta and cyan printhead on the right in the picture there.

He did suggest pulling out the printhead and cleaning it, but that didn't work.

So at Costco today I checked what they had.  The HP's started at $59!  (A whole printer for less than the printhead.  Something about our system seems pretty cockeyed.)  I ended up with one for $119.

It took less than 30 minutes to get it out of the box, plugged in, connected to the wifi and to download the appropriate software for my laptop and print.  I haven't tried anything with blue yet.  So there's now a five year old printer looking for a new home.  The blue doesn't work and other things could start to go wrong any time.  But surely someone can use it.

[UPDATE April 28, 2017:  I tried color on the new printer - picture letters to my grandkids.  It worked.  Then I made an envelope.  But the computer chose the old computer and printed the envelope on a page.  With BLUE.  So, it appears, eventually, the blue got back into the system.]

And yesterday I checked out the bike trail along Campbell Creek, east of Lake Otis.  It's all clear of snow now.  But there is still ice on the creek itself.

Tuesday, April 25, 2017

Trump Is The Joker In Peter's New Deck Of Cards

Anchorage cartoonist Peter Dunlap-Shohl has created a truly wicked deck of cards.  Peter retired early from the Anchorage Daily News* as his early onset Parkinson's diagnosis hit him and he thought he might not be able to continuing drawing and that his life was significantly shortened.

But technology has made it possible for him to continue drawing and he has two blogs.  One, Frozen Grin, continues his political cartooning, and it's where this deck of card was just revealed.

The other is a Parkinson's blog where he first began to post cartoons about his adventures with the diabolical villain PD.  Those cartoons ended up in a book - My Degeneration - which last year was highlighted in the Journal of the American Medical Association as the one of the top 2016 Graphic Medicine offering.

So I'm not at all surprised to see this spectacular deck of cards.

And, yes, they aren't just on his blog (where you can see all the face cards), but they are also available for purchase here.   

And yes, I know Peter as a friend and fellow Anchorage blogger, but I get nothing out of this other than the satisfaction that his work might get the recognition it deserves and that people who might find this deck of interest have access to it.

*Anchorage Daily News is now Alaska Dispatch News.

Monday, April 24, 2017

Casey Grove Shares His Experiences Covering Courts With Other Journalists Saturday

I think these are my last notes from the Alaska Press Club Conference.  I didn't submit anything to the contest this year.  I was too busy with my granddaughter at the time of the deadline.  So I didn't go to the awards dinner.  I was ready to snooze.  This was the last panel I went to.

Casey Grove, a reporter for Alaska Public Media, talked on "Survival skills for reporting on

He had a set of points he wanted to get through.  I don't think he got to them all because people had lots of questions.  

1.  You’re dealing with human beings - real people - turns people’s drama into abstract ideas that don’t really tell you what’s going on in people’s lives, easy to get jaded and think of them as characters, not real people.  Seeing them on the worst day of their lives and you are sharing their stories to the world.

2.  Be aware of what’s going on around you. Know what’s happening in the community.  Know the context of the story, boil it down to key issues.  In breaking news world, you’ll have a working knowledge of what the trial is all about.  

3.  Types of Court.  State and Federal.  Also civil courts and criminal courts.  State Superior Court is the sweet spot for most reporters - serious crimes.  Different systems to negotiate.  Can look at transcripts of Grand Jury later.
Charging doc police lay out all the things. 
Go to court house more often than covering from afar.  

4.  Court Documents.  File charges - Charging document.  Grand Jury indictment can’t be there as a reporter.  Prosecutor lays out the case and GJ say, ok.  Arraignment - initial appearance on charges.
Charges are just the police version of the story, reporter needs to check on things.

5.  Know the lingo and have a working knowledge of the law.   difference between homicide and murder, 1st and 2nd degree.  Gunshops have a little booklet.  
State laws, data bases.    Talk to the lawyers.  Reporters don’t want to look dumb.  Attorneys love to talk about this stuff.  

6.  Talk to lawyers off the record - Cox Directory of attorneys, phone numbers of every judge and lawyer.  Super helpful.  about $40. On background.  means you can paraphrase.  But definitions vary.    Story of police having a body but not telling the family.

7.  Check Court Calendar - search data base  and calendar.,  court calendar.  Search by judge.  Brings up documents by judge that day.  Jury trial, change of pleading, sentencing.  Fewer jury trials.  Doesn’t even say what the charges are.  Take case number and search it.  Easy way to get indication - case numbers
3AN (3rd district)   case from 2016 probably not a murder case.  Murders take longer.  More lawyers for big cases.  Sentencing also compelling.  Victims impact statements - 
alaskacourtsystem charges filed last seven days - online  New charges filed.
If there’s a long list of charges, you know it’s big. 

8.  Talk to the lawyers about procedures - Go to the opening statements where they will lay out the case.  Meat of the trial.  Closing arguments.

Other points:

Application for court approval of media coverage, if just a reporter, you don’t need one.  Need it to have equipment to record audio or video take pictures.    Clerk’s office.  Court Website.  When you speak to the clerk, be sure to address them properly:“Madam Clerk”  or “Master Clerk”.  

Be on time, know where to park.  eat something beforehand. Don’t become the center of attention.  

My first real public blogging - I'd blogged a while, but not on public events - was reporting the three Alaska public corruption trials back in 2007.  So much of what he said about learning on the fly I could relate to well.  I really wasn't intending to blog when I went to the court room the first day, but by the end of the day it seemed like something I should do.  But I only had experience with the Federal court.  I did go to the Alaska Supreme Court while I was blogging the Redistricting Board, and I didn't know then that I was supposed to get permission beforehand to use my camera.  But they were pretty flexible.  I was a good talk and everyone seemed to be engaged.  

Saturday, April 22, 2017

Jenna Johnson's Ten Things She Learned That Media Can Do

The first part of Washington Post White House reporter Jenna Johnson's keynote address at the Alaska Press Conference was a quick review of what she said at yesterday's talk about the campaign. But at the end she offered a list of things she learned that media can do to improve things.  Below is my rough transcript of what she listed.

War on the media has tempered a little a bit.  What can the media learn from this and do our jobs better?  Polls show Americans don’t trust the media.  We have to work on this.  I have ideas, but no answers - here's a list of things I learned things media can do
1.  Transparency - giving readers as much raw info as we can - links to reports, if you do a high profile interview put the video on line and transcribe it.  David Farenthold at the Post got a Pulitzer Prize for reports on Trump’s charitable donations - called around asking orgs about getting charity from Trump - tweeted and asked.  Went to Trump clubs, crowd sourcing.
Sopan Deb - took phenomenal notes at rallies, transcribed the best and tweeted the candidate’s words.  
2.  Power of simple questions.  Easiest most obvious questions are the most important to ask, and if they don’t respond, it means they’re hiding something.  So you have to keep asking.  Trump attacked federal judge because his parents were from Mexico.  (Reporter) ???? had a list of questions and went to ask, but ended up asking the same question over and over.  We don’t because it’s part of being respectful, but we've gotta keep asking.
3.  Stop playing the game to get access.  Need to realize you want sources in the administration, but you can’t be too cozy.  They’re giving you info they want out there.  It’s ok to be on their bad side.  Looking at what’s out there and connecting the dots.  People start coming to you with info.
4.  Stay out of the office and talk to people.  Need to be out there talking to people.  And listen to criticism when you get it.  We get a lot of nasty comments, ok to ignore it.  But if someone seriously reaches out to you about what you reported.
5.  Need for explaining.  Need to be better to explain complex material.  Lots of tools - tweeting, answering, engaging, graphics great way to present info.  Here are people with ties to Russia and connections, etc.  Here are all of Trump’s promises to people.  Made a list.  282 promises. (You can see it here.)
6.  Facts really matter.  Learned this week chatting with you here in Alaska that Trump wasn’t the first to lie to your face, that Alaskans have been doing it for years.  Now more than ever we need to call out the lies, do fact checks.
7.  Treat politicians like humans.  Foreign leaders and their staffs have been studying Trump for months.  A lot of evidence has been his books.  His children, like his daughter who teaches her daughter Mandarin.  How do they handle conflicts?  How do they act when they are exhausted?  I felt I had to capture the rally for my readers.  I’d stay up to 3am writing a narrative about the rally - here’s what he said, here’s the reaction  Best Mannheim, Indiana - nine sentence critique ??? Clinton - took Trump 25 minutes to read the statement because he went on tangent after tangent saying Clinton was crazy, to poll watcher, etc.  He couldn’t stick to the script.  This is what really happened.  Writing what you saw
8.  Connecting what’s happening nationally to local communities.  How will Trump’s budget cuts to the community.  Write about it now, what people need to know.
9.  Have a good support system.  Job can be hard.  Conferences are good ways to find fellow reporters where you can get good advice.
10.  Read as much as you can - all sides New Yorker to Breitbart.  Get story ideas from all over.

No better time to be a journalist.  People are more stirred up than ever.  People say, don’t talk to me I don’t know anything about politics.  But then they know all the Trump appointments.  Historic times, people really interested in what’s happening

The executive editor of The Washington Post Martin Baron said the Post reporters would do what they always have done and offered five words to describe what Washington Post journalists need to follow in how they report:

  • Honorably,
  • Honestly
  • Accurate,
  • Unflinchingly
  • Energetically
There's a good Q&A going on now, but I can only do so much?

Ann Gerhart "The dry business of government, which is different from politics, has important real world impacts" at AK Press Club

Gerhart is an engaging speaker, warm and caring.  She's offered to help folks while she's here.  But for me, the stuff she's talking about is the stuff I know best.  I spent my professional career teaching public administration so when she says,
"The dry business of government, which is different from politics, has important real world impacts"
Ann Gerhart Washington Post
that's like the A, B, C's for me.  But it is important because it's not obvious to the public or to many reporters.  I've got extensive mental notes for posts I want to do on the idea of Government Isn't The
Enemy, Because There Is No Government.

That would branch off into:

  1. There are thousands of governments - from the federal government, to the state governments, to the local governments, and all sorts of water and road and other districts.  So there is no monolithic "Government."  And I've pointed out that when you lose your bags (or to be more current, when you're dragged off a plane) at United Airlines, you don't say, "Business is the enemy."  But people do say "Government is the enemy"  if they have a problem with any individual employee of any branch of government, rather than citing that specific agency.  
  2. That there's politics and there's government.  Politics are the people who write the laws and all they need to get their jobs is 50% of the vote.  That can happen to someone who has lots of experience and the best of intentions who runs a great campaign.  It can also happen to someone whose backed with lots of money and knows little except what his funders tell him.  Government is made up of people who get their positions by being qualified and competing for their jobs based on merit.  (Yes, I know it doesn't always happen perfectly, but we're all imperfect human beings.  At least government has a lot more transparency than business, so governments can be held accountable.  And yes, there's a hybrid of these two - the top level policy appointments of the newly elected executive.  They usually need legislative approval.  This works when there are healthy oppositions and reasonable politicians who are working for the public good and not some rote ideology.)
Gerhart did make this second point, and it's important.  And she also emphasized the importance of relationships. First, knowing the relationships among politicians and between politicians and those trying to influence them.  Second, relationships are important for politicians to get good legislation written and passed, so the government can implement it.  

What she's talking about is important to me, but not new.

Now she's talking about reaching out to non-voters.  "I don't think there is another side to 'everyone needs to vote.'"  Of course there are.  There are situations where the elections are rigged and not voting makes an important statement about the illegitimacy of the election and the government.  One could even argue that having Trump win was the emergency that Americans needed to understand how important government is and their participation is.  I'm not making that argument, but I wouldn't simply dismiss it.

Gerhart started out saying that when she started at the Washington Post she knew nothing about politics.  An early job was to write a political gossip column - who was partying who whom, etc.  That's when she said that relationships are important.  And I agree.  It was her fear that she'd mix up an R or a D behind someone's name in the column, that got her more into politics.  The things she's saying about getting to non-voters (as candidates and more in this talk as journalists) is right on the mark.  But she really had nothing more than platitudes about how to go about doing this.

As I'm listening and typing here, I'm wondering if I should even post this.  Her talk is good and she talks really well.  She's like an experienced older sister sharing her wisdom that has taken her years to acquire.  Her topic, though, is an area that I have expertise on.  (Most sessions look more at the journalism aspects that I don't know as well.)  And so I'm sucked in to reacting to some of what she's saying.

Looking around we have some key Alaskan political writers in the room.  Nathaniel Herz who is the ADN's legislative reporter is here and Dermot Cole has just asked about how to write about complicated budget issues.  And her answers are good.  She even said, "I don't know how to answer that.  We have to solve that problem every day, how to write about this in a way that is fresh every day."  And she acknowledged that sometimes what people prevent from happening is more important than getting something done.  That's a hard story to write.

She's talking about remembering the underlying conversation, rather than the specifics of the debate.  This is critical, it's what I try to do all the time.  I do like her and what she's saying.  This is really a conversation in a bar more than a conference presentation.  It's not organized with points she wants to make.  But rather it's sincere and as she talks and people ask questions, important ideas come up and are shared.

She's talking about two women in a bar who live nearby each other and seem the same, but it turns out they had totally different ideas.  It's about, she's saying, after all, who we want to be and how we want to get there.

I do want to talk to her during the break.

Aurora Over Our Backyard Deck

@AuroraNotify sends out tweets, so when there is action, I can watch it move from Scandinavia to Iceland to Canada to us in Alaska.

So when there were tweets about Fairbanks and then Anchorage, I went out on the deck to look.  At first there were very pale, but active spikes shooting above.  I went back in then came back out.  And again.  The fourth time the lights were rolling and dancing brightly overhead.  Even enough for my Canon Powershot.

The photos are just a faint sense of what was happening, and the swirling movement is part of the wonder.

And these catch the green glow, but as they swirled overhead they went bright white as well as green.

It's 1:30am.  I'll go out and take another look before I go to bed.

AK Press Club - What Do Media Folks Talk About At Their Conferences?

It's getting late, but I have some pictures and notes about the panels I went to today.

I'll just do them in chronological order.  I already posted about Matt Pearl's discussion on how to put together a video story.

Then came Matt number two - Matt Eich, a photographer who shared his photos that have been put into book form.  His projects are ambitious.  He finds interesting people and gets permission to hang out with them over a long period of time taking pictures.  You can see the albums on his website at the links below, including a better version of the picture on the right (it's in Carry Me Ohio).


It's Matt's head in the lower right of the photo, sticking up out of his computer.  I had a little trouble balancing the brightness of the screen so you can see the photo and the darkness of the room so you can get a sense of that too.

I had some trouble understanding Matt over the sound system so I missed a lot of the explanations of the photos, but this is serious photography and commitment.

Then I went looking for the Hearken Meet-up, but ended up in another session in the old TV studio on campus that had a video connection called "Smart, effective and ethical audience interaction."  The program says "Join presenters from the West Region of the Associated Press for best practices to apply your journalistic ethics in the world of social media."  While I was there the discussion was focused on how to find stories and contact people using Facebook.

But I really wanted to hear the Hearken meet-up talk.  It said it was about a way for radio folks to connect better with their audience.
It turns out to be an online system for getting suggestions from listeners for story ideas and there's a way for all the listeners to vote on the suggestions.  The idea is to engage the audience more.  It also costs stations and this was a sales pitch.  But it was an interesting discussion of one attempt to connect more to listeners.  Below is Steve Heimel talking with Hearken's Ellen Mayer on the right.

After lunch I listened to Jenna Johnson with moderator Liz Ruskin.  Johnson is a reporter for the Washington Post and followed the Trump campaign.  I've got lots of notes from that discussion, but given I'm trying to get all these in before I go to bed, I'll just offer a few things I found interesting.
Johnson said that she was curious about some of the off-the-beaten-campaign-path cities that Trump was speaking at so she used census data to come up with profiles of the places.  They were all well under the average US income, education, and employment levels.

Jenna Johnson and Liz Ruskin
At one point in the campaign, reporters had to get tickets and wait in line like everyone else.  No one from the campaign came around - as they did with other campaigns - and gathered voter data or offered water (it was hot) or even apologies for the inconveniences.  But she said the Trump supporters didn't seem to mind.  And she came to value these situations where she could get a more visceral sense of the people there and could slowly reveal herself and get interviews.

Johnson said that one good thing about the campaign was that you need it would end on a certain date.  But then Trump was elected and she ended up in the White House press.  Some asked if things gotten less hectic.  In the video below she answers:

Someone asked if Trump voters had  simmered down a bit.
Johnson said they had.  Once Trump won, they won.  Before that, they were angry at media.  Once election over it was cool.  They don’t have to fight you any more.  They had their victory.

There was lots more, but time to move on.

NPR reporter Kirk Siegler's topic was "making news stories pop.'  I liked Siegler's laid back style, which goes along with his rural beat.  There was nothing slick about him.  He came across as genuine.  Some of the points he made about getting good stories included:

  • A strong character, and the example stories he played did all have strong characters

Kirk Siegler

  • Tension - competing values or loyalties
  • Knowing the point of your story
  • Take your listener on a journey - he gave an example of walking from one end of a wildfire zone to the other, stopping along the way to make comments on talk to someone
  • Immediately after the interview, jot down notes - "what is the most important thing she said?" What are some of the interesting takeaways you want to remember?  Write it down right away.
  • Find a local guide.  A fixer.  When you're going to a place you don't know for a short time, you should contact someone who can then lead you to others.  Do this before you get there.

OK, that's a very abbreviated view of what I took in today.  These conferences always give me things to think about, new ways to do things, a checklist for how I do things, and sometimes confirmation that I'm doing things right.  

Friday, April 21, 2017

AK Press Club - Matt Pearl On Creating A Video Story

I'm at the Alaska Press Club listening to Atlanta television (WXIA)  journalist Matt Pearl talking about how to put together a video story. One story was about an autistic high school student who comes into his own as manager of the high school football team and the story was about the night he got to play in a game and make a touch down,  He went through the logistics of getting out to the town three hours from Atlanta, how he connected with the kid's mom and gathered a lot of different kinds of shots so he could tell the story with some real context.

Pearl strongly emphasized the need to think hard about why the story is important.  He used his story about the Cleveland Cavaliers victory parade in Cleveland and how he got up at 5am to get establishing sunrise shots of Cleveland, then how he took wide shots to establish the setting for the viewers so they get a sense of where they are when they see the close ups.  He even demonstrated this by taking an audience member and walking around the room to show how he'd get shots from different angles.

This talk inspired me to take some video, but I can't edit it while I'm here at the talk, so maybe I'll get to put some up later. [Later: the video wasn't good enough to use.] I'm thinking about how I use video which is different from what he's describing.  But I can use words and other pictures to do some of the story, but without having to make the video the whole story.

The key point I got was that you have to go the extra mile to make the story more than just out of context images.

Oh, and he's also the author of The Solo Video Journalist.